This section includes information about:
Australia has state and territory police forces. For example, in NSW there is the NSW Police Force, and a separate national police force called the Australian Federal Police. The state and territory police deal with the state and territory criminal laws. The Australian Federal Police deal with Commonwealth criminal laws and general policing in the Australian Capital Territory.
The NSW Police Force main roles are:
You have committed a crime when you have done something wrong according to a criminal law that is punishable by a court. Another term for crime is ‘offence’ or ‘criminal offence’. A person who has committed a crime is called an ‘offender’. If a person is thought to have committed a crime, they may be referred to as an ‘alleged offender’.
There is a range of crimes and, some are considered far more serious than others. The seriousness of a criminal offence is usually reflected in the maximum penalty that can be imposed if a person is convicted of that offence.
Some crimes can be dealt with ‘on the spot’ with the issuing of an on-the-spot fine. These tend to be relatively minor crimes, such as travelling on public transport without a ticket, and some driving offences. For more about fines, click here.
Other crimes can result in the person accused being arrested and held in police custody. These are usually more serious crimes and are more likely to be dealt with formally through a court hearing. For more about criminal cases in the courts, click here.
As well as the police, there are other people who have some powers similar to the police, such as Local Government Rangers and Parking Patrol Officers who are employed by local governments to who enforce local government By-laws in relation to litter control, animal control, bush fire control, off-road vehicles (on beaches and reserves), emergency management and parking. Unless they are sworn special constables (which is unlikely), Rangers and Parking Patrol Officers do not have full police powers.
Up until 2013, Transit Officers and Revenue Protection Officers were responsible for ‘policing’ NSW public transport. However, these roles have now been entirely replaced by a dedicated NSW Police Transport Command.
If you believe you have been wrongly dealt with or fined by any of these officers, you should first contact the authority they work for to make a complaint. You can also go to the Local Court to challenge a fine. To find out about getting advice, click here.
Sometimes people with mental health conditions find themselves homeless, and therefore physically vulnerable. Sometimes these people find that their behaviour or way of speaking means they become the focus of attention in public places. Both of these situations have the potential to lead to situations were the police may be called.
Police take their role in maintaining public order seriously.
People are allowed to be in public places and generally the police do not have the power to do anything unless a criminal offence has been committed or the police have a ‘reasonable suspicion’ that an offence will be committed.
However, the law have gives the police powers to intervene to ‘maintain public order’. An example is that members of the NSW Police Force have the power to order a person to ‘move on’ if they are ‘noticeably’ drunk.
For more information on police ‘street’ powers:
For information on police powers of arrest, click here to go to the next page of the Manual.
If the police reasonably suspect that you have committed a crime, they can arrest you. ‘Reasonable suspicion’ is very different from ‘proof beyond reasonable doubt’, which is the standard of proof required when you finally go to court for the hearing of a criminal charge. If a person told the police that you did something that was a crime, unless the police have a lot of other evidence that you didn’t do what that person said you did, this would be enough for the police to have a reasonable suspicion that you had committed a crime.
Criminal cases can begin either by the police arresting the alleged offender or by giving or sending the alleged offender a document ordering them to be at court at a particular time and date for the hearing of the criminal charge (this document is called a ‘summons’). Cases dealing with street offences (such as ‘resist arrest’ or ‘use offensive language’), even though they are not as serious as other offences, often begin with the person being arrested by the police.
Police have some discretion (that is, choice) about whether to arrest someone or not. This usually depends on the seriousness of the crime. Some crimes can be dealt with by the police giving a warning. Some less serious crimes, including most traffic and parking offences, are dealt with by a ‘penalty’ or ‘infringement’ notice (an ‘on-the-spot fine’). If you are given a penalty notice you can either decide to pay the amount of the fine or choose (‘elect’) to have the matter go to court.
Police also have power under the Mental Health Act 2007 (NSW) to take you, using force if necessary, to a psychiatric hospital or unit.
Sometimes the police have a choice of whether to charge a person with mental illness with having committed a relatively minor crime or to take them to a psychiatric hospital.
If you find yourself in a situation where you want to go to a hospital and fear that you may be arrested instead, you should make sure the police know:
The next page gives you information on what to do and what not to do if arrested, click here.
If you are arrested, it is important:
The NSW Law Society has an advice sheet, ‘Under Arrest’ that you might find useful.
Updated January 30, 2015